شنبه، مرداد ۱۶، ۱۳۸۹

مطلبی بر گرفته از انترنت که برای بررسی و آشنایی با زبان عیلامی جالب است

برای استفاده راحت تر و بردن متن به سمت چپ و ترجمه متون آلمانی به انگلیسی از امکان ترجمه انگلیسی آن که در کنار همان عنوان در انترنت موجود است، استفاده شود.
Ran Zadok
A. Elamite words are recorded both in Elamite and non-Elamite sources1. Elamite
lexical material is documented from the second half of the third millennium through
the second third of the first millennium B.C., a period of nearly 2000 years. Thus
Elamite is one of the oldest and most continuously used languages of the ancient Near
East. It has four chronological phases («dialects»), viz. Old, Middle, Neo and Achaemenid
Elamite (OE, ME, NE and AE respectively). The documentation from each
phase is very uneven (for a survey and a complete list of the sources see Reiner 1969,
57ff. and Steve 1992, 19-24 respectively, to which add Beckman 1991, Diakonoff and
Jankowska 1990, Herrero and Glassner 1991, 1993). OE has only two more or less
intelligible texts (a treaty and a royal inscription). Other OE texts (all from Mesopotamia)
are largely incomprehensible incantations and related texts; even their linguistic
affiliation is obscure in several cases. The rest of the earliest documentation is
recorded in hieroglyphic scripts which are not yet deciphered (cf. Damerow and Englund
1989). Hinz's decipherment of several hieroglyphic texts is necessarily tentative.
He lists some material from these texts in his dictionary (see Hinz and Koch
1987, passim), but this step is premature and the material cannot be seriously
evaluated. In addition, there are some OE words in early Akkadian sources from Susa
(cf. below, C).
Contrary to the OE scanty material which is almost exclusively from Susa, the
richer ME corpus has a wider geographical distribution. In addition to texts from Susa
there are documents from several sites in Khuzistan (as well as from Liyan, modern
Bandar Bushehr). Noteworthy is a short text with an almost identical Akkadian version,
i.e. practically a bilingual inscription (Konig 1965, 67f.: 13B) from Dur-UntaS
(Chogha Zambll). Other Akkadian texts from the same site contain passages whose
topic resembles that of the Elamite ones. As expected of stereotypic royal inscriptions,
several such ME texts contain repetitive formulae (cf. Konig 1965, 46f., 84f.). Some
new material is contained in recently published texts from Haft Tepe (ancient
Kapnak)2. Some Elamite words are paired together with their Akkadian equivalents in
Forms quoted without references are listed in Hinz and Koch 1987 (where most of the secondary
literature quoted below is also listed), unless otherwise stated. Abbreviations (not listed in the
References below) follow CAD.
Note the following anthroponyms in MB texts from Kapnak (Herrero and Glassner 1993, 106:176,
11; 111: 184,7; 113: 188,9; 114f.: 190,3; 122: 199, I'; 124f.: 204, 6; 205, 1 If.; 134:217) which
are (at least partly) explicable in Elamite terms (figures refer lo Zadok 1984): At-ta-pu-up-la (18),
Ki-dc-en-ku-tc-er {108, 110), Ku-da-ah{-[...]) (if complete, to kuti/u- below, D?), Ku-ni-in-di (III
SEL 12 (1995)
242 R. Zadok
Babylonian lexical lists. These lists are not dated, but generally belong to the Standard
Babylonian «dialect» which is post-OB, viz. in this case coeval with ME and early NE
(cf. below, C).
The relatively numerous NE material is diverse and has a wide geographical distribution:
administrative documents from Anshan (Tall-i Malyan; early NE ace. to Steve
1992) and Susa (late NE), royal inscriptions from Susa and several mountainous sites
in western Elam, as well as epistolary documents which were found in Sargonid Nineveh,
but might have originated in Susiana. The very few juridical and religious texts
are also from Susiana. There are some NE inscribed seals.
AE has not only the richest documentation (statistically outweighing all the earlier
material) and the widest geographical distribution (cf. Jones and Stolper 1986, 248;
Koch 1993), but is also the most intelligible «dialect». This is largely due to the fact
that many of the royal inscriptions have parallel versions in languages which are
much better understood than Elamite (Akkadian and Old Persian; to a much limited
extent Aramaic). In addition, the abundant administrative documentation from Persepolis
contains numerous Iranian (notably Old Persian) loanwords, thereby enhancing
their comprehensibility. Regrettably, many AE documents containing Aramaic notes
are yet unpublished. The AE corpus also includes inscribed seals and a weight.
Vallat (NABU 1987/114) eliminates the pseudo-personal pronoun AE *kaS (merely a
graphic variant of HI).
B. Since 1987 we have at our disposal an Elamite dictionary which is practically
also a thesaurus and a concordance (Hinz and Koch 1987). The merits of these volumes
are considerable. The authors register in addition to words and names occurring
in the Elamite corpus, every lexical and onomastic item from non-Elamite texts (with
various degrees of plausibility). They also supply exhaustive cross-references. It is
therefore quite easy to find the pertinent items in the dictionary which is an indispensable
tool for everybody working on Elamite texts. It should be remembered that most
of the material registered in the 1316 pertinent pages of this dictionary is onomastic
(some names are - d u e to the maximum approach - linguistically irrelevant)3. Moreover,
Sumerograms, quasi-Sumerograms and (quasi-)Akkadograms are common
especially in NE and AE (the distinction between such logograms and genuine Meso-
2.common of kuni-1), Ku-uk-in-di-ir-ki (kuk-, 110, is presumably followed by a hitherto unknown
theophorous element which is perhaps related to the first component of U-in-di-ri-karak, 272), Kuum-
da-da (cp. N/LB Ku-um-mu-i-da-a-tm,, 82, 114), Ku-ra-te-er (apparently ending in -ratir,
196b), ^Si-mu-ut-un-ta-aS(222,236c, 270). El-la-ku-a (Hcrrero and Glassner 1993,135: 240) may
be identical with the divine name Elagu (name of Sarpanltu in Elam, Tallqvist, Golterepilheta,
Most of the toponyms are now listed and discussed in F. Vallat et ah 1993, Les noms geographiquesdessourcessuso-
elamites (Wiesbaden; add, e.g., NE [Pu-hu-] sa-ma-tup). Does Hal-is-ra-t[i\
begin with /ia7-«land»?
On the Current State ofElamite Lexicography 243
potamian loanwords is not always clear, cf. Stolper 1984, 20-22). The following remarks
should not be understood as mere criticisms of this monumental achievement,
but largely as an attempt at a further refinement of the presentation and perspecuity of
the arrangement of the purely lexical material.
The authors list each item (even a mere graphic variant) separately. Their
consistent avoidance of lemmatization is understandable in view of the fact that
Elamite is so far an unaffiliated language (its hypothetical relationship to Proto-
Dravidian ace. to McAlpin 1981 has no practical consequences due to the
considerable chronological gap). Moreover, most of its lexemes resist any analysis,
let alone a smooth translation (cf. Reiner 1969, 65f). The few instances of such
translations in the dictionary are typically personal renderings due to clear
epistemological reasons known to everybody acquainted with the ceuvre of the senior
author. The treatment of the secondary literature is not complete. For instance, there is
no reference to Gershevitch's thought-provoking article (1979) s.v. kudda (the
occurrence of NE ku-da - if and only if it is a variant of ku-ud-da - casts doubt on
Gerhevitch's assumption [1979, 132] that AE ku-ud-da is merely a grapheme). In view
of the considerable efforts at clarifying fundamental issues of Elamite grammar it
would have been worthwhile to list together at least the verbal forms (in the broadest
sense) under a common denominator, such as a stem (for AE see, e.g., the list in
Paper 1955, 38ff; cf. the «Glossary» in Hallock 1969, pass.). This would have been
very useful for future work on Elamite grammar, especially the verbal system. Such
lists have to be compiled for each period separately. Compare, for the time being (for
AE only) Hallock 1969, 664-776, Glossary, s. vv. baki(ra)-, bah-, be-, bela-, bera-,
besa-, bed-, da-, dau-, du-, dukka-, dunu-, ELma-, hadu-, hallu-, halpi-, halsa-, hani-,
hanu-, hapi-, hapu-, hara-, hartu-, haSa-, hatarri-, hazza-, huba-, hupa-, huSi-, hutta-,
ibba-, iddu-, ima-, ipSi-, irra-, izzi-, kani-, kappa-, (kariza-), karsu-, kaSe-, katu, kaza-,
kelu-, kera-, keti-, kezza-, ki-, kiti-, kurma-, kurra-, kuSi-, kuti-, la-, laki-, lati-, li-, lilu-,
lima-, lipu-, liri-, ma-, maki-, marri-, mati-, mazte-, mazzi-, mika-, mite-, murda-,
muSa-, na-, ni-, (nira-), nuSke-, nuti-, pari-, parru-, pida-, Ipiki-, pirra-, putta-, rabba-,
rati-, rippi-, ruka-, sa-, sapi-, sari-, sati-, si-, sira-, siti-, sitma-, suda-, suku-, sunki-
(substantive), Saka-, Salu- (substantive), SAnu-, Sara-, SAri-, Sana-, (Sasak/ Sas/Sika
etc.), Sera-, SeSki-, Sinnu-, Sura-, talii-, tarma-, tarti-, teri-, tinke-, tiri-, tite-, tukki-,
turna-, uki-, ulla-, umbe-, umi-, umma-, unsa-, uri-, zakke-, zami-, zappi-, zati-, zi-,
zibba-, zikka-, zilla-, and ziti- (altogether 131 verbal bases). The OE, ME and NE
texts contain slightly over 110 verbs (many identical with the AE ones). The
arrangement suggested above is a prerequisite for any statistical evaluation of the
chronological and areal distribution of the lexicon. Such an evaluation should be made
along the following lines: general number of lexemes (minus certain derivatives and
compounds) and separation of loanwords (Sumerian, Akkadian, Old Iranian, other).
Principles of calculation must take into account lexemes common to all periods, to
three periods (a. OE, ME, NE; b. ME, NE, AE; c. OE, NE, AE; d. OE, ME, AE), to two
periods (a. OE and ME; b. OE and NE; c. OE and AE; d. ME and NE; e. ME and AE;
f. NE and AE) and to one period only.
244 R. Zadok
C. Regarding degrees of plausibility, basically many items recorded in bilinguals
and lexical lists have a transparent meaning. At least the semantic category may be
inferred if found in a relatively clear context, notably Elamite loanwords in Akkadian
texts (Sumerian texts do not seem to contain any discernible Elamite vocables except
OB (all from Susa unless otherwise stated) ha-am-da-gar/ga-ar/ri (mentioned together
with rabanu «mayor», conceivably a high official), ha-aS-Sa, ku-um-di-il-hi
(functionaries), te-ep-pe-er, te-pei\er) (NB te-ep-pe-er, NA te-ep-per) «scribe, bureaucrat
» (not «Oberrichter», AHw, 1347b); pu-/}u-£e-p/«Schreiberlehrling» (Hinz ap.
AHw, 878a), ki-pa-ru/rum (a high judicial official; ki-pa-ru also at NB Susa); ha-amdu-
u, hu-pir-ri-(ir-)ri-8a, hu-ut-H-iS, H-ri-Sa, lu-ur-Su, Sa-ab-ba-me-tu (professions); kudu-
uh-ta-aS, ku-uS-Su-ki (craftsmen/officials); hu-uh-pu-um «ein Bronzegefass», li-ikti-
ri-ik «garment», bar-ku-su (cf. NE bar-ku-Su, presumably a kind of textile), ba-aS-tela-
ak (? in a list of textiles; not listed in AHw and CAD), tu-ul-mi-it-ta («ein Gartengerat?
», AHw, 1369a), hu-ul-mu-un (or -iz-zal)-na (unclear; in an OB text from
Susa); am-ma ha-aS-du-uk «late (< «regretted» , F. Vallat) mother» and ha-wi-ir suuk-
ki-ir«a later king» are Elamite formulae in OB texts; su-uk-ki-sii-uk-ki, (hi-ih-)suuk-
ki-e/-im (to sunki «king» ace. to CAD S, 362); me-ru «hundred» (CAD M/2, 27);
su-mi-tu (~asumit(t)u ace. to AHw, 1057b; CAD S, 378a, s.v. sumftu: poss. loan from
Elam. su/imifti«stella?»); ul-b/pu-u «ein Gegenstand» (AHw, 1408a, Sem.?), Su-ha-Iulu
(poss. originally an anthroponym); OB wa-al-Sa = NE ma-al-Si-ia («alabaster», see
G. Bianchi, NABU 1987/31); OB and MB Elam si-i-a-a-ni (gen.), si-a-na-am/si-ianam
(ace). It is doubtful whether hu-ri-ni (Akkad. gen.; meaning unkn.; with a hypothetical
cognate from MB Nuzi) and gu-(u-)Sum «ein Schlachtopfer» are Elamite
words. MB ka-ha-ma is with a doubtful attribution and obscure denotation. NA has
\'u)b/pu-uh-la-Ie-e (a class of priests). All these words occur in texts from Elam (the
last one in a text concerning Elam). SB and N/LB (•'") si-im-ma-gir/gi-ir (AHw, 1045a),
which is recorded only in first-millennium Mesopotamia, may have a forerunner from
OB Susa (cf. Zadok 1991, 233, n. 5). Kidinnu «divine protection, divinely enforced
security* is recorded both in Elam and Mesopotamia after the OB period (only in
Elam in the OB period); na-a-bu/na-a-ab/nab-bu/na-bi «god» (outside Elam; in Ur III
and OB anthroponyms, SB lexical lists and a late-Assyrian royal inscription).
Vocables defined as «Elamite» are listed without context in SB lexical series
(notably malku = Sanv cf. Frank 1928, 39ff.). However, as pointed out by Reiner
(1969, 66), most of them do not appear in Elamite contexts (exceptions are Si-il-ha-ak
«strong» and ki-ri-ir «goddess»; cf. u-sa-an): mu-uh-te-er-ku-un «woman, female», ule-
er-ku-un «man, male» (both vocables, which are semantically related, apparently
contain the same final syllable, see Frank 1928, 41; both presumably compounds); paha-
nu «prince» (these three words may have cognates in Elamite texts, cf. Hinz and
Koch 1987, s.vv.); a-ri/tal «upper story», hu-uk «wood», pa-la-u = EREN «army».
Moreover, SamSa-ga-be-gal-zu (Akkad. Sammu ja/mu, a medicinal plant), which is
defined as Elamite in the lexical series Uruanna, is in all probability Kassite (see
Balkan, Kassit. Stud., 140 and cf. CAD S/l, 61f.). Elam. ti-in-na-ar (cf. Frank 1928,
40) and te-hu-ur are listed in malku = Sarru without an Akkadian equivalent. Pa-a-ar
On the Current State ofElamite Lexicography 245
(= Akkad. ze-rii, AHw, 836b: «Erzeugnis») is not explicitly defined as Elamite in the
same series, but is presumably such. Pal-tin-gu (pa-al-ti-gu, in the lexical series HAR.
gud) «ein Reisesessel» is perhaps Elamite (cf. AHw, 816b).
D. List of OE, ME and NE verbal bases (a sample of almost all the forms
beginning with a, b/p, d/t, g/k/q and e from Hinz and Koch 1987, 1-572, i.e. ca. 40 %
of the material; doubtful readings are excluded). I = Hallock's Conjugation I (2.sg.
also as imperative); II = Hallock's Conjugation n (Hallock [1965, 121] apparently
regards -Viand -Vka as free variants; ii 3.sg. = passive participle ace. to Reiner
1969, 84:5.1.2). Ill = Hallock's conjugation III (active participle ace. to Reiner 1969,
84:5.1.3, but passive participle ace. to Grillot-Susini and Roche 1987, 34, +/-
«connective» -a). Non-transparent forms are listed at the end. «Iter(ative)» is used
here as a purely morphological term and not in any functional sense. The same
applies to «final» t(i)-a, the function of which is not yet established (cf. Reiner 1969,
81:4.6.3; Grillot-Susini and Roche 1987, 33:
NE I l.sg. e-te-eh; II 3.sg. e-te-qa.
halpu- «to hammer» or sim.
NE I 3.pl. (+ «final» -t(i)-a) al-pu-uh-Su-ta.
kal(V)- (iter, kakl-) «toembroider»(?)
NE II 3.sg. kak-la-qa; kak-la-qa-qa (dittography of the preceding?).
kap(p)a- «to assemble» or sim. (lit. «to bag»?)
NE I 3.sg. kap-pa-iS (qa-ap-pa-aS), I. l.pl. qa-ap-pa-hu (< «enclitic» -i?); I 3.sg. (+
«connective» -a) qa-ap-pa-Sa; II 3.sg. qa-ap-pa-ak, III 3.sg. qa-ap-pa-an-ra; kap-pami-
in-ki-Sa «er hatte zu verschliessen begonnen(?)».
kakp- (iter.) ME I l.sg. ka-ak-pa-ah.
kar(r)a- «to adorn»
ME I l.sg. (+/- «connective» -a) kar-ra-ah (qa-ar-ra-ah), qa-ar-ra-ha; II 3.sg. qa-arra-
kaz(z)a «to hammer, forge, frame, notch»
ME I l.sg. ga-za-ah. Qa-az-za-ah-pi (apparently same as the preceding + -pi) is
rendered by Hinz and Koch 1987, 411 as «ich schmiedete fur sie (pl.)»; II 3.sg. (+/-
precative -na) qa-az-za-ak, qa-az-za-ak-na; NE II 3.sg. kas-zak/za-ak, kas-za-qa/qaiz-
za-qa; Ilm 3.sg. qa-za-ma-ik.
kakz- (iter.) NE II 3.sg. kak-za-ak, kak-za-ka; Urn 3.sg. kak-za-ma-ak. Qa-qa-ah-zaki
apparently has the same ending as II 3.sg., but its base seems to be misspelled (cf.
Hinz and Koch 1987, 437: «es ist geschmiedet worden»). Cf. NE (AN.BAR\g)-kaszi-
ra «ironsmith».
kilV- «to order»
ME I l.pl. (+ precative -na) gi-el-hu-na; III 2.sg. gi-el-at-ti (with -tt-<-nt-\ alternatively
kVnV- «to happen»(?)
246 R. Zadok
ME active participle (+/- precative -na/ni) ku-ni-en (also NE), ku-ni-en-na/ni. NE
active participle ki-ni-en; ki-ni-na (active participle + precative -na? cf. Hinz and
Koch 1987, 478: «geschehen seiend(?)»); Im 1. sg. (+ «connective» -a) ki-ni-ma-ha
«ich habe verwirklicht».
kirpV- «to strengthen*
ME I 2 .sg. (+ precative -na) ki-ir-pu-ut-na.
kiti- «to cleanse, purify»
ME I 2.sg. (+ precative -na) gi-ti-it-na; gi-ti-iS-pi-na (Grillot, DAFI 3, 1973, 161: «afin
que le ... les etablisse de facon stable»; Hinz and Koch 1987, 490: «sie sollen solche
sein, denen (etwas) gereinigt wird», cf. pa-ha-aS-pi-na «es soil sie (pi.) schiitzen»
ace. to Hinz and Koch 1987, 120); III 3.sg. gi-ti-in-ri; ? ki-ti-ir-ma-ah {-r-ma-h, cf.
Reiner 1969, 79, differently Hinz and Koch 1987, 471: «ich dichtete ab(?)»). NE I 2.
sg. gi-ti-it; active participle gi-tin. Ki-te-nu-uh is analyzed as kiti-nu-h by E. Reiner
(1969, 79), but Hinz and Koch (1987, 488) are of the opinion that the base is kitin and
translate «ich bannte».
kikt- (iter.?): ME I l.sg. ki-ik-ki-ti-ih (ki-ik-ki-te-eh) (the attempt of Hinz and Koch
1987, 466 to differentiate it from kiti seems less likely as it would result in several
homophonic roots with entirely different denotations).
kitin- cf. kiti- above.
kuki- «to guard»
ME I 2.sg. ku-ki-it-na, I 3.sg. ku-ki-iS-na (both + precative -na).
kul(l)a «to pray, offer»
OE I l.sg. ku-ul-la-ah; II 3.sg. ku-ul-la-ak (both also ME). ME I l.pl. ku-ul-la-hu; I
3.sg. (+ precative -ni) ku-ul-la-aS-ni; active participle ku-ul-la-an (Hinz and Koch
1987, 561: «er rufe an», but on 510, s.v. NE ku-Ia-an: «er wird, soil anrufen, bittflehen
»); III l.sg. ku-ul-la-an-ka, III 3.sg. ku-ul-la-an-ri. NE I l.sg. ku-la-ah (ku-ul-li(-
ih)), I 3.sg. (+ precative -na) ku-ul-la-aS-na; I 3.sg. (+ «final» -t(i)-a) ku-ul-la-aS-da;
active participle ku-la-an (cf. just above); II 3.sg. (+/- precative -na) ku-ul-lak, ku-ullak-
kupa- «to raise, set up»
ME I l.pl. (+ precative -na) ku-ba-hu-na. NE I l.sg. ku-ba-ah (ku-pu-uh), I 3.sg. (+
precative -ni) ku-ba-aS-ni; II 3.sg. (+/- precative -ni) ku-ba-ak, ku-ba-ak-ni.
kura «to singe, scorch»
OE II 3.sg. ku-ra-ak (also ME; Scheil: «fut ruine»). ME I 2.sg. (+/- precative -ni) kura-
at, ku-ra-at-ni.
kurma- «to entrust»
NE II 3.sg. kur-ma-ak.
kurra «to arrange»
NE II 3.sg. kur-ra-ak.
kurV- «to bestow care» (same as the preceding?)
OE II 3.sg. (+ precative -li) ku-ru-uk-li. ME II 3.sg. (+ precative -na) ku-ru-uk-na.
kuSi «to build; bear children*
OE I 3.sg. (+ precative -li) gu-si-iS-li. ME I l.sg. (+/- precative -ni) ku-Si-ih, ku-Si-ihni,
I 3.sg. ku-si/Si-iS, I 3.pi. (+/- «connective» -a) ku-Si-ih-Si, ku-Si-ih-Sa; I l.sg. (+
«connective» -a) ku-Si-ha; I 3.sg. (+ «final» t(i)-a) ku-Si-iS-da/ta, I 3.pi. (+ «final» t(i)-
On the Current State ofElamite Lexicography 247
a) ku-Si-ih-iS/Si-ta; II 3.sg. (+/- precative -ni) ku-Si-ik, ku-Si-ik-ni; cf. ku-Si-ik-ii-be; III
m active participle ku-uS-ma-ni; ku-Si-ih-Si-ma (the function of -ma here is not clear;
Hinz and Koch 1987, 540: «sie haben sich ans bauen gemacht»; III l.sg. (+ mar
«sagte er sich» or «dachte er bei sich» ace. to Hinz and Koch 1987, 876, but -ma-r
conj. IV ace. to Grillot-Susini and Roche 1987, 35; cf. tunV- below) ku-Si-in-ki-mar
«ich bin ein Bauender (sagte er sich)». NE II 3.sg. ku-Si-qa; Illm 2.common (+
precative -na) ku-Si-man-da-na «nachdem du wiederaufgebaut hattest».
kukS- (iter.): ME I 3.pl. ku-uk-Si-ih-Si; I 3.sg. (+ «final» t(i)-a) ku-uk-Si-iS-ta (Hallock:
kutu/i- «to carry (away), bear, uphold; guard»
OE I 2.sg. ku-te-et. ME I l.sg. (+/- «connective» -a/i) ku-tu-uh, ku-ut-ha/hi, I l.pl. kuut-
hu (hardly to be differentiated, pace Hinz and Kochl987, 568f.: «mitgefiihrt»); I
3.sg. (+ precative -nal) ku-tu-uS-[na\; I 3.sg. (+ «final» t{i)-a) ku-tu-uS-ta; active participle?
ku-tu/tu^-un (also NE), ku-du-ni (+ precative -ni ? cf. Hinz and Koch 1987,
499 with lit.: «er soil hegen»); III l.sg. ku-tu-un-ki. NE (partly with omission of -ti-) I
3.sg. ku-tu-iS, ku-iz, ku-iz-za (ku-iz-zi) (with «connective» -a/i); I 3.sg. (+ «final» t(i)-
a) ku-tu-iS-da, ku-iz-zi-da; III l.sg. ku-ti-in-ki, III 2,common kut-tin-ti.
paha- «to guard»
OE I l.sg. pa-a-ah; I 3.sg. (+ precative -li) ba-ah-si-li. ME II 3.sg. (+ precative -li)
ba-ak-li; pa-ha-aS-pi-na «es soil sie (pi.) schiitzen» (cf. kiti- above). NE I l.sg. pa-haah,
I 3.sg. pa-hi-iS; II 3.sg. (+ precative -ni) ba-ak-ni (pak-ni); ba-ak-ra «einer, der bewahrt
pahti- «to gladden»
ME I 3.p\. pa-ah-ti-ih-iS. NE I 3.sg./pl. pa-ah-ti-is; active participle pa-ah-ti-in.
pali- «make an effort»(?)
NE {-k- + -ma-n-ki) ba-( al-)li-ik-ma-an-ki «ich als einer, der sich abmuht».
pari- «to go to, arrive, issue»
ME I l.sg. pa-ri-ih. NE I l.pl. pa-ri-ut, II 3.sg. pa-ri-ik. Cf. pa-ri-ra «ein voriibergehender
parti- «to squander* (? Hallock); «to spoil» (? Hinz and Koch 1987)
OE II3.sg. (+precative -na) bar-ti-ik-na. ME III 3.sg. ba-ar-ti-in-ra.
patV- «to show plainly»
ME I 2.sg. (+ precative -na) pa-ta-at-na «que tu manifestes». NE active participle
ba-te-en, ba-te-na; II 3.sg. bat-te-qa.
pera- «to read»
NE III 3.sg. be-ra-an-ra; Illm l.sg. be-ra-an-man-qa, Illm 3.sg. be-ra-man-ra.
pili- «to put in place, restore; shape, create»
ME I 3.sg. (+ «final» t(i)-a) be-el-Si-ta; III 3.sg. be-H-in-ri (Grillot: «qui preserve*);
active participle pi-li-in. NE I l.sg. (+ «connective» -a) be-el-ha; II 3.sg. be-el-ik, beel/
ul-qa; active participle be-li-en.
pipl- (iter.): ME I l.sg. pi-ip-li-ih, active participle be-ip-H-en.
4 AE pa-raS'^-da contains the phonetic complement i? (AE and NE CVC-signs are indifferent to
vowel quality). Another, just possible, such complement may be exemplified by NE kur-^abal-laat.
248 R. Zadok
piSi- «to create»
ME II 3.sg. pi/piS-Si-ik.
pipS- (iter.): ME I l.sg. pi-ip-Si-ih (be-ip-si/Si-ih) (Vallat: «je (l')ai remis en etat»), I
3.sg. pi-ip-Si-iS (Scheil: «il fonda, construisit»); l.sg. (+ «connective» -a) pi-ip-Si-ya
(be-ip-Si-ya) (~be-ip-$i-ha, Grillot/Vallat: «j'ai restaure»); cf. pi-ip-Si-ya-ma; pi-ip-sirma-
an-ra «einer, der sich an erneuern macht»; be-ip-Si-ir-ma-ah, pi-ip-sir-mah (-r-mah;
see Reiner 1969, 79), is rendered by Grillot as «Jai etabli», by Stolper as «I
restored it» and by Hinz and Koch (1987, 194f.) as «ich machte mich ans Erneuern,
ich erneuerte allmahlich».
pitu/i- «to lose»
NE II 3.sg. pi-tu^-uk-qa.
pipt- (iter.): NE I 3.sg. (with «connective» -a) pi-ip-tu^-Sa (Grillot/Vallat: «ayant
efface»); active participle be-ip-te-na.
pirra- «to destroy»
OE I l.sg. pi-ir-ra-ah. NE II 3.sg. pi-ir-rak.
pitte- «to secure»
OE I 3.sg. pi-te-eS. ME I l.sg. pi-it-te-eh, I 3.sg. pi-it-te-iS; II 3.sg. pi-it-te-ga/qa; active
participle pi-te-en (also NE); pi-it-te-im-ma (+ -ma, cf. Reiner 1969, 79:
NE II 3.sg. pi-it-te-qa; HI 3.sg. pi-it-tin-ra; Illm 3.sg. pi-it-te-ma-an-ra.
putta- «to flee»
ME I l.sg. pu-ut-tah. NE II 3.sg. pu-ud-[d\a-qa.
ta- «to set, deposit; send»
OE I 3.pi. da-ah-Si (also NE). ME I l.sg. (+/- precative -ni) ta-ah (da-ah), tah-(ha-)ah
(this form is unexpected for this base like tah-ha-aS and ta-ha-qa below), ta-ah-ni, I
2.sg. (+/- precative -ni) ta-at, ta-at-ni, I 3.sg. (+ precative -ni) ta-aS-ni, I l.sg. (+
«connective» -a) da-ha, I 3.sg. (+ «final» -rior t(i)-a) ta-aS-ti {da-aS-da); II 3.sg. (+/-
precative -na/ni) ta-ak-ni, ta-ak-na, ta-ha-qa; III 3.sg. ta-an-ra/ri. NE I l.sg. da-ah, I
3.sg. (-(-/-precative -ni) ta-iS, da-aS-ni(ta-iS-ni), tah-ha-aS, I 3.pl. (+precative -ni) daah-
iS-ni; I l.sg. (+ «connective» -a) da-ha; I 3.pi. (+ «final» -f(j)-a) ta-ah-iS-da.
tatta (with reduplication): OE I l.sg. ta-at-ta-ah (also ME). ME I l.sg. (+/- precative
-ni) ta-at-tah/ta-ah, ta-at-tah-ni; I l.pl. (+ precative -na) ta-at-ta-hu-na; I 1 .pi. (+ «final»
t(i)-a) ta-at-ta-hu-ta; II 3.sg. da-at-ta-qa. NE I l.sg. da-ad-da-ah; active participle daad-
tahha- «to help» (Hinz and Koch), Grillot «to make a common case, agree».
ME I 2.sg. (+/- precative -na) tah-ha-at, tah-ha-at-na (or to ta-1); cf. 1.3.sg. tah-ha-aSpi
«er stand ihnen bei»; II 3.sg. tah-ah-ak-ni; III 2.common tah-ha-an-ta, tah-ha-an-te,
III 3.sg. tah-ha-an-ra; III 3.pi. tah-ha-an-pi. NE I 3.pi. da-ah-ha-ah-Si (Stolper: commission;
order» or «assist»); II 3.sg. tah-ah-ak-ni, III 3.sg. tah-ha-an-ra (tah-ha-am-ri
seems to be the same form with n > m), III 3.pi. tah-ha-am-ba (with n > m); active participle
tah-ha-na. Cf. fa7}-/}/-ri«helper».
tallu/i- «to write»
ME I l.sg. ta-al-lu-uh, I 3.pi. ta-al-lu-uh-Su; I l.sg. (+ «connective» -a) da-al-lu-ha; I
3.pl. (+ «final» -t{i)-a) ta-al-lu-uh-Si-ta (ta-aI-lu-«Si»ih-Si-ta); II 3.sg. da/ta-al-Iu-qa.
NE I 3.sg. (+/- «connective» -a) tal-li-iS, tal-li-Sa; I 3.sg.(+ «final» t(i)-a) tal-li-iS-da.
On the Current State ofElamite Lexicography 249
tanu/i «to listen attentively, obey»
ME I 1. pi. (+ precative -na) ta-nu-hu-na; active participle da-ni-en.
tarma- «to complete»
NE active participle tar-ma-na.
tela- «to present, offer; direct»
ME II 3.sg. (+/- precative -ni(-e), -na, - li) te-la-ak, te-la-ak-ni(-e); te-la-ak-na, te-laak-
Ii; te-la-ak-ti-ni (as for -ti, it is an isolated form, perhaps for -ta in which case it
would be II 2.common, or - with Hinz and Koch 1987, 316 - a scribal error for te-laak-
ni). NE te-la-ak-ni.
tepu- «to shape, fashion»
ME I l.sg. te/ti-pu-uh. NE I l.sg. (+/- «connective» -a) ti-pu-uh (ti-pi-ih), ti-pi-ha
(Hallock: «I fashioned»).
tik(k)a- Grillot: «form, conceive, project»
OE II 3.sg. ti-ka-akr, ti-ga-in (form not clear, perhaps active participle; Hinz and Koch
1987, 323: «es werde [nicht] gewollt!»). NE I 3.sg. (+ precative -ni) ti-ik-ga-aS-ni;
active participle ti-ik-qa-an: III 3.sg. tuk-kan-ra; Him 3.sg. tuk-qa-man-ra.
tinki- «to send, bring back»
ME I l.sg. te-en-gi-ih «ich sandte»; I 3.pi. (+ «final» t{i)-a) te-en-gi-ih-Si-ta.
NE I 3.sg. (+ precative -ni) tin-gi-iS-ni; Him 3.sg. tin-gi-man-ra. *tintk- (iter.): I l.sg.
tipi- «to write»
ME II 3.sg. (+ precative -ni) ti-pi-ik-ni. NE active participle (+ precative -na) ti-ippan-
na; II 3.sg. ti-pi-qa.
tiri/turu- «to speak, say, tell»
ME I 3.sg. (+/- precative -ni-e) tu^-ru-uS, tu^-ru-uS-ni-e; active participle tu^-ru-un; III
l.sg. tu^-ru-un-ka, III 3.sg. tu^-ru-un-ra/ri, ti-ri-in-ri; (-nu-n-k, see Reiner 1969, 79f.)
tu^-ru-nu-un-ki. NE I l.sg. tu-ru-uh, I 3.sg. (+/- precative -ni) fti4-nz-/.?/u,?(alsoME), &'-
ri-iS-ni; I l.sg. (+ «connective» -a) tu4-r[i]/ru-ha, ti-ri-ya; II 3,sg. (+/- precative -na/ni)
tur-uk {tu^-m-uk), tu^-ru-uk-ni, tu^-ru-qa, fi/4-ru-qa-na; III 3.sg. tu^-ru-un-ra, ti-ri-in-ra.
Cf. ti-ri-ip-pi.
tu- «to receive, take»
OE I 3.sg. du-uS; II 3.sg. duk. ME II 3.sg. tu^-uk, III 3.sg. du-un-ra. NE I l.sg. du-uh,
I 3.sg. (+/- precative -ni) du-uS, du-iS, du-iS-ni, I 3.pi. du/tu-uh-iS; I 3.sg. (+ connective*
-a) du-Sa; I 3.sg. (+ «final» t(i)-a) du-iS/uS-da, I 3.pi. (+ «final» t(i)-a) du-uh-
Su/uS-da (du-uh-iS-da); II 3.sg. du-(u)-qa, tu^-qa; III 2.common du-un-ti, III 3.sg. duman-
ra, III 3.pl. du-ma-am-ba.
tuka- «to feed»(?)
NE II 3.sg. du-uk-kak, du-uk-qa-ak, du-uk-qa-qa (Stolper: «fashioned(?)»).
tuki- «to choose»(?)
ME II 3.sg. tu-ki-ik. Cf. tu-ki-ra/ri «der/die auserwahlende».
tumpa- «to open»(?); Grillot: «installer»
ME I l.sg. tu-um-ba-ah (also NE), I 2.sg. tu-u[m\-ba-a[t]\ III 3.sg. tu^-um-pa-an-ra.
NE I 3.pi. (+ «final» t{i)-a) tu-um-ba-aS-da; II 3.sg. ti/tu-um-ba-qa (tu-ba-qa); active
participle ti/tu-im-ba-an; III 3.sg. tu-um-ba-an-ra. Cf. ti-um-pi-ir?
250 R. Zadok
tunV- «to give»
ME I l.sg. du-u-ni-ih (tu4-ni/ni4-ih), I 2.sg. (+ precative -ni) du-ni-it-ni, I 3.sg. (+/-
precative -ni) du-ni-iS, du-ni-iS-ni; I 3.pi. + precative -ni(-e) du-ni-ih-Si-ni(-e); I l.sg.
(+«connective» -a) du-ni-ha. NE I l.sg. du-ni-ih (du-nu-uh), I 3.sg. du-nu-iS/uS; I l.sg.
(+ «connective» -a) du-nu-ha, I 3.sg. (+ «connective» -a) du-nu-Sa; I 3.sg. (+ «final»
£(/')-a) du-nu-iS-da; II 3.sg. du-nu-qa. Ill l.sg. (+/- mar, cf. ad kuSi- above) du-nu-unku-
mar «ich will beschenken -denkt er bei sich».
turna- «to know»
ME I l.sg. du-ur-nah/na-ah, I 3.sg. du-ur-na-aS. NE I l.sg. (+ precative -ni) tur-nahni.
Vlma «to consider, think, plan»
NE I 3.pl. el-ma-ah-Si.
DOUBTFUL AND/OR HAPAX VERBAL FORMS (base not always known; renderings
taken from Hinz and Koch 1987)
NE I 3.sg. a-ah-pi-iS-ni (with precative -ni) «ermoge zeugen!(?)».
ME II 3.sg. an-du-uk-ni «wie geplant wurde(?)»; Vallat: «ete pris»; Grillot: wenlevee
NE II 3.sg. e-ri-iS.
NE kar-ut «wehre ab!(?)».
ME I l.sg. ka-tuh «ich bekronte(?)». NE qa-tu-uh «id.».
kirV- «to weave»
NE II 3.sg. ki-ra-ak.
NE I l.sg. gi-ri-ih «ich verbiirgte(?)»; Grillot: «to favour, confer, honour».
OE I l.sg. (+ precative -ni) ku-ni-ih-ni «ich mochte umschmeicheln». Cf. ku-ni-ir-ri
«einer, der umschmeichelt».
ME I l.sg. ku-un-ti-ig-gi-e/-ih«ichhie\t in Ehren(?)».
ME I 2.pl. ku-up-pu-uh-ti«ihrhabt verpfandet(?)».
NE II 3.sg. kur-za-ak «es wurde gewoben(?)», kur-za-qa «es ist g ewoben worden
ME II 3.sg. (+ precative -ni) ku-sa-ak-ni «es soil versagt sein».
pat- (verb?)
NE beft>ad-da-i$«er nahm, packte, griff» (Jusifov); «schusterte» (Hinz).
On the Current State ofEIamite Lexicography 251
ME I 3.pi. (+ precative -ni) pu-uh-Si-ni «sie sollen zerreissen».
ME III 3.sg. pu-lu-un-ri «einer, der zerschlagt».
ME I l.sg. pu-ra-ah «ich verwiinschte».
ME, NE II 3.sg. te-el-be-qa «es ist umhiillt».
NE active participle (+ precative -ni) te-el-te-en-ni «es moge gelingen».
NE active participle te-te-en «erschone(?)».
NE active participle tiS-ha-an «er wird iiberschwemmen».
ME I 2.sg. du-ub-ba-at; I 3.sg. (+ precative -na) du-ub-ba-aS-na «er soil treten».
NE active participle tu-ri-en «er wird verwirklichen».
ME active participle tu-ur-ri-na «sich unterworfen habend».
base unknown
NE II 3.sg. a-lik«cs wurde gesaubert(?)».
NE II 3.sg. e-qa «es ist gepriift worden».
ME II 3.sg. pu-pi-na-qa «es ist verarbeitet worden».
NE II 3.sg. pu-un-qa-qa, pu-un-qa-ak «es ist (bzw. wurde) eingefullt».
ME II 3.sg.(?) tu-tu-uS-Sik «es war entwendet worden».
G.M. Beckman 1991: A Stray Tabid from Haft-Tcpe, IrAnt 26, 81-83.
P. Damerow and R.K. Englund 1989: The Proto-Elamite Texts from Tepe Yahya, Cambridge (Mass.).
I.M. Diakonoff and N.B. Jankowska 1990: An Elamite CilgamcS Text from ArgiStihcnele, Urartu
(Armair-blur, 8th century B.C.), ZA 80,102-23.
C. Frank 1928: Fremdsprachliche Glossen in assyrischen Listen und Vokabularen, MAOG 4, 36-45.
I. Gershevitch 1979. The Alloglottography of Old Persian, TPS 1979, 114-90.
F. Grillot-Susini 1994: line nouvelle approchc de la morphologie elamite: racines, bases et families de
mots, JA 282, 1-18.
F. Grillot-Susini and C. Roche 1987: Elements de grammaire elamite, Paris.
R.T. Hallock 1965: The Verbal Nouns in Achaemenid Elamite, in Studies B. Landsberger (AS 16),
Chicago, 121-25.
R.T. Hallock 1969: Persepolis Fortification Tablets, Chicago.
P. Herrero and J.J. Glassner 1990: Haft-Tepe: choix de textes I, IrAnt 25, 1-45.
252 R. Zadok
P. Herrero and J.J. Glassner 1991: Haft-T6p6: choix de tcxtcs II, IrAnt 26, 39-80.
P. Herrero and J.J. Glassner 1993: Haft-Tcpe: choix de textcs III, IrAnt 28, 97-135.
W. Hinz and H. Koch 1987: Elamischcs Worlerbuch 1,2., Berlin.
C.E. Jones and M.W. Stolper 1986: Two Late Elamite Tablets at Yale, in L. De Meyer et al. (eds.),
Fragmenta hisloriae elamicae. Melanges offcrts a M.J. Steve, Paris, 243-54.
H. Koch 1993: Elamisches GilgameS-Epos oderdoch Verwaltungstafelchen?, ZA 83,219-36.
D.W. McAlpin 1981: Proto-Elamo-Dravidian: The Evidence and the /mpfcafio/w, Philadelphia.
H. Paper 1955: The Phonology and Morphology of Royal Achaemenid Elamite, Ann Arbor.
E. Reiner 1969: The Elamite Language, in A. Kammenhubcr (ed.), Altkleinasiatische Sprachen (HdO
M.-J. Steve 1992: Syllabaire elamite. Hisloire et paleographie, Neuchatel.
M.W. Stolper 1984. Textsfrom Tall-iMalyan 1: Elamite Administrative Texts (1972-1974), Philadelphia.
R. Zadok 1984: The Elamite Onomasticon, Naples.
R. Zadok 1991: Elamite Onomastics, SEL 8,225-37.

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